• At its simplest, biotechnology is technology based on biology - biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet. We have used the biological processes of microorganisms for more than 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and cheese, and to preserve dairy products.
  • Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, use less and cleaner energy, and have safer, cleaner and more efficient industrial manufacturing processes.
  • Currently, there are more than 250 biotechnology health care products and vaccines available to patients, many for previously untreatable diseases. More than 13.3 million farmers around the world use agricultural biotechnology to increase yields, prevent damage from insects and pests and reduce farming's impact on the environment. And more than 50 biorefineries are being built across North America to test and refine technologies to produce biofuels and chemicals from renewable biomass, which can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Recent advances in biotechnology are helping us prepare for and meet society’s most pressing challenges. Here's how:


  • Biotech is helping to heal the world by harnessing nature's own toolbox and using our own genetic makeup to heal and guide lines of research by:
    • • Reducing rates of infectious disease
    • • Saving millions of children's lives
    • • Changing the odds of serious, life-threatening conditions affecting millions around the world
    • • Tailoring treatments to individuals to minimize health risks and side effects
    • • Creating more precise tools for disease detection
    • • Combating serious illnesses and everyday threats confronting the developing world.


  • Biotech uses biological processes such as fermentation and harnesses biocatalysts such as enzymes, yeast, and other microbes to become microscopic manufacturing plants. Biotech is helping to fuel the world by:
    • • Streamlining the steps in chemical manufacturing processes by 80% or more
    • • Lowering the temperature for cleaning clothes and potentially saving $4.1 billion annually
    • • Improving manufacturing process efficiency to save 50% or more on operating costs
    • • Reducing use of and reliance on petrochemicals
    • • Using biofuels to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 52% or more
    • • Decreasing water usage and waste generation
    • • Tapping into the full potential of traditional biomass waste products.


  • Biotech improves crop insect resistance, enhances crop herbicide tolerance and facilitates the use of more environmentally sustainable farming practices. Biotech is helping to feed the world by:
    • • Generating higher crop yields with fewer inputs
    • • Lowering volumes of agricultural chemicals required by crops-limiting the run-off of these products into the environment
    • • Using biotech crops that need fewer applications of pesticides and that allow farmers to reduce tilling farmland
    • • Developing crops with enhanced nutrition profiles that solve vitamin and nutrient deficiencies
    • • Producing foods free of allergens and toxins such as mycotoxin
    • • Improving food and crop oil content to help improve cardiovascular health.

Biotechnology Engineering has expanded in various specializations as the following.

  • • Genetics
  • • Virology
  • • Ecology
  • • Immunology
  • • Biophysics
  • • Bio-statistics
  • • Fisheries
  • • Biochemistry
  • • Pharmacology
  • • Microbiology
  • • Molecular Biology
  • • Animal Husbandry

Career Paths In Biotechnology

  • • Agricultural Engineer. Many people don't think of farming as being sophisticated.
  • • Animal Scientist.
  • • Biochemist and Biophysicist.
  • • Biomedical Engineer.
  • • Epidemiologist.
  • • Food Scientist and Technologist.
  • • Microbiologist.
  • • Soil and Plant Scientist.
  • • Drug and pharmaceutical research.
  • • Public funded laboratories
  • • Chemicals
  • • Environment control
  • • Waste management
  • • Energy
  • • Food processing
  • • Bio-processing industries

Biotechnology Engineering has expanded in various specializations as the following.

  • • Genetics
  • • Virology
  • • Ecology
  • • Immunology
  • • Biophysics
  • • Bio-statistics
  • • Fisheries
  • • Biochemistry
  • • Pharmacology
  • • Microbiology
  • • Molecular Biology
  • • Animal Husbandry
  • While government institutes and organizations, such as Department of Biotechnology (DBT), several agriculture, dairy and horticulture institutes may offer job opportunities to Biotechnology professionals, one can expect the best salary in private sector.
  • Drug companies in biotechnology like Dabur, Ranbaxy, Hindustan Lever and Dr Reddy's Labs that have their R & D units offer Biotechnology professionals with handsome pay-packages. There are also ample opportunities available to bio-technologists in the food processing industry, chemical industry and the textile industry.
  • Some industries employ bio-technologists in their marketing divisions to develop business in sectors where their products would be required.
  • The major companies, hiring bio-technologists, include Hindustan Lever, Thapar Group, Indo American Hybrid Seeds, Bincon India Ltd., IDPL and Hindustan Antibiotics.

Salary Package

  • The Government of India provides large-scale employment to most bio-technologists in its research laboratories. Those employed as researchers in government sector can have a starting salary of Rs. 9000 per month along with government perks/allowances.
  • Private sector pharmaceutical companies generally offer salary between Rs. 12,000- Rs. 20,000 per month to an entry-level postgraduate. A skilled and experienced bio-technologist can get salaries far beyond his expectations.
Hot Fields 
1 Biotechnology $140,091 
2 Clinical Research $139,434 
3 Genomics $119,994 
4 Immunology $103,159 
5 Genetics $97,815 
6 Biochemistry $97,142 
7 Chemistry $93,100 
8 Microbiology $89,312 
9 Molecular Biology $86,328 
10 Oncology $86,112 
Top Positions in Academia 
1 College/Univ. Department Head $159,022 
2 Professor $151,825 
3 Associate Professor $105, 499
4 Assistant Professor $90,899 
5 College Instructor $74,964 
Top Positions by Nonacademic Title 
1 Senior Researcher $129,007 
2 Govt. Non-supervisory Pro. $98,198 
3 Staff Scientist $91,447 
4 Laboratory Manager $67,951 
5 Research Technician $55,140 
Top Positions by Industry Title 
1 Vice President $391,095 
2 Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) $205,159 
3 Director $178,457 
4 Manager $135,124 
5 Senior Researcher $132,672 

What to Expect in the Future

Across the country, the life sciences industry has evolved into “new and exciting areas with bioengineering and health technology growing at increasing rates,” Radcliffe said. The role of engineering is also becoming more prominent.

The globalization of healthcare and the varying regulatory environments are also determining where jobs are being created. With many companies shifting away from building out internal expertise, they’re becoming more external-facing and virtual.

10. Epidemiologists

  • About the position Epidemiologists are public health professionals who investigate patterns and causes of disease and injury in humans. They seek to reduce the risk and occurrence of negative health outcomes through research, community education, and health policy.
  • Median pay, 2015: $69,450 per year

9. Genetic Counselors

  • About the position Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. They provide information and advice to other healthcare providers, or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.
  • Median pay, 2015: $72,090 per year

8 (tie). Microbiologists

  • About the position Microbiologists study microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and some types of parasites. They try to understand how these organisms live, grow, and interact with their environments.
  • Median pay, 2015: $67,550 per year

7 (tie). Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists

  • About the position Zoologists and wildlife biologists study animals and other wildlife and how they interact with their ecosystems. They study the physical characteristics of animals, animal behaviors, and the impacts humans have on wildlife and natural habitats.
  • Median pay, 2015: $59,680 per year

6. Chemical Technicians

  • About the position Chemical technicians use special instruments and techniques to help chemists and chemical engineers research, develop, and produce chemical products and processes.
  • Median pay, 2015: $44,660 per year

5. Biochemists and Biophysicists

  • About the position Biochemists and biophysicists study the chemical and physical principles of living things and of biological processes, such as cell development, growth, heredity, and disease.
  • Median pay, 2015: $82,150 per year

4. Biological Technicians

  • About the position Biological technicians help biological and medical scientists conduct laboratory tests and experiments.
  • Median pay, 2015: $41,650 per year

3. Biomedical Engineers

  • About the position Biomedical engineers combine engineering principles with medical and biological sciences to design and create equipment, devices, computer systems, and software used in healthcare.
  • Median pay, 2015: $86,220 per year

2. Medical Scientists

  • About the position Medical scientists conduct research aimed at improving overall human health. They often use clinical trials and other investigative methods to reach their findings.
  • Median pay, 2015: $82,240 per year

1. Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians

  • About the position Medical laboratory technologists (also known as medical laboratory scientists) and medical laboratory technicians collect samples and perform tests to analyze body fluids, tissue, and other substances.
  • Median pay, 2015: $50,550 per year

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